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Hans Paerl and David Whitall (1999)

Anthropogenically-derived atmospheric nitrogen deposition, marine eutrophication and harmful algal bloom expansion: Is there a link?

Ambio, 28(4):307-311.

Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (AD-N) to the North Atlantic Ocean (NAO) basin arises from pollution sources in North America and Western Europe; these sources have increased drastically (5-10-fold) since the Industrial Revolution and continue to increase in both geographic and depositional magnitude. Based on the estimates in this study, AD-N flux (11.2 Tg N yr-1) accounts for 46-57% of the total 'new' or anthropogenic nitrogen flux to the NAO. The ecological impacts of this N flux have been linked to eutrophication, which may be manifested most noticeably as harmful (toxic, hypoxia-inducing, food web-altering) algal blooms (HABs). Here, we examine the potential conceptual link between 'new' N loading from AD-N to apparent increases in HAB frequency documented for the North Atlantic and other AD-N impacted marine ecosystems. Anthropogenically-derived atmospheric nitrogen deposition, marine eutrophication and harmful algal bloom expansion: Is there a link?. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279556040_Anthropogenically-derived_atmospheric_nitrogen_deposition_marine_eutrophication_and_harmful_algal_bloom_expansion_Is_there_a_link [accessed Jun 22, 2017].
Eutrophication, Environmental degradation, Algal Growth, Air Pollution, Nutrient loading, Human factors, Human impact, Water Pollution Sources, Marine environment, North America, Atlantic, Nitrogen, Algal blooms, Nitrogen sources, Marine Algae
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