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E. Gaino, R. Manconi, R. Pronzato, E. Gaino and E. Gaino (1995)

Organizational plasticity as a successful conservative tactic in sponges

Animal Biology, 4:31-43.

Sponge~ are prtmitive organisms whose functions are based on a flexible differentiation system. Sponge plasticity has been explored at the cellular, structural and reproductive levels. Permanent histological systems are lacking in sponges and cell differentiation is in most conditions reversible except for the somatic cells which evolve into gametes. This plasticity gives rise to continuous remodeling processes that are responsible for the lack of a species-specific external morphology. Even in the absence of a coordinating system, cytodifferentiation, cell transformation and mobility detenni:ne a dynamic, harmoniously developed structural plan. Different tactics for population survival have been recognized that explain the great success of sponges in the benthic communities.
Cytodifferentiation, Adaptation, Reproductive strategies, Sponge plasticity
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