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Helene Ek, Eva Nilsson, Goran Birgersson and Goran Dave (2007)

TNT leakage through sediment to water and toxicity to Nitocra spinipes

Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 67(3):341-348.

The fate and effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) at marine ammunition dumping sites are essentially unknown. The objective of this study was to examine the release from solid TNT to seawater when covered by sediment of two different types (sandy and fine-grained) and thickness (0, 1 2, and 4 cm), under different temperatures (5, 10, and 20 degrees C), and light conditions (ambient daylight and darkness) in the laboratory. The water column was analysed for TNT and some of its common transformation products, and toxicity to the copepod Nitocra spinipes after 1, 2, 4, 8, 19, and 32 weeks. Leakage of TNT to seawater and the toxicity to N. spinipes was significantly reduced by sediment burial, especially in fine-grained sediment. Hence, this study suggests that adverse effects of TNT in dumped ammunition oil aquatic organisms should be delayed/reduced at low temperature and when TNT is covered sediment, especially with fine-grained sediment. (C) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

adnt, ammunition, fate, 6-trinitrotoluene tnt, soil, reduction, binding, 2.4.6-trinitrotoluene, rdx, metabolites, 2, 4, bioassay, dissolution rates, acid, transformation, explosives


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